St Mark Whitechapel (Goodman’s Fields) 1839-1925
also known as St Mark, Tenter Ground                                                curates  ~  baptism & wedding statistics

THE CHURCH & ITS PARISH….

For the earlier history of Goodman's Fields see here. The 1755 map [left], from an edition of John Stow's Survey of the Cities of London and Westminster, shows the area as the southern part of the parish of St Mary Matfelon, the original 'White Chapel' which gave the district its name. (That church was rebuilt several times, blitzed in the war and its site is now Altab Ali Park; much has been written about its history). By the mid-19th century houses had been built around the edge of Tenter Ground, as North, South, East and West Tenter Streets (a few of which remain) and it was bisected by what became Scarborough and St Mark's Streets. It had become a poor and populous district, and the decision was made to create a new parish. The 1868 map right, shows the location of the church; further south, the school hemmed in by the railway, and to the east, on Backchurch Lane, the mission chapel mentioned below.

The church was built in 1838 by the Metropolis Churches Fund, at a cost of £5,265 11s 1d to designs by Thomas Henry Wyatt and his collaborator David Brandon (their first London church) and consecrated on 30 May 1839. By Order in Council of 1 April 1841 a parish area was carved out of St Mary's parish, but the incumbent remained a 'Perpetual Curate' until 1863. The Dowager Queen Adelaide provided £25 towards the building of a Sunday and infant school. National Schools were established that year between Chamber Street and Royal Mint Street, where a parish hall was also built. A vicarage, in neo-Tudor style, was provided in St Mark's Street, near to the Jews' Orphan Asylum described here.

The 1851 census lists the population of the parish as 15,790, in 1,757 'households' - an average of 9.09% per household, the highest in East London, and with the highest percentage of Irish and foreign-born residents (primarily from Germany, Holland, Poland and Prussia). Those who were not in 'seasonal employment' worked in tailoring and dressmaking - especially women and Jewish men who were increasingly settling in the area. They worked from home, on a piecework basis, so needed to live near their suppliers. In 1858 the parish was described, at a committee of the House of Lords, as ‘utterly unmanageable’. 

Under a faculty of 23 September 1874 William Alexander Longmore of Aldgate removed the north and south galleries to throw open the roof, rebuilt the east wall six feet further east to allow a chancel to be formed, partially reseated the church and did various repairs; the Incorporated Church Building Society made a grant (see their plan 07698, drawn by another architect, G.H. Simmons). In 1879 the organ, a 17-stop 2 manual instrument by Gray and Davison, ordered in 1839 and installed in 1846, was moved from the west gallery and rebuilt in the old vestry at the north-east by T.R. Willis. (It was further rebuilt by Robert Slater & Son of Forest Gate in 1904 or 1906, with 20 speaking stops. The organist in the 1920s was Charles F. Willson. When the church closed, the organ was moved to St James Alperton, but was later replaced by another instrument). Two years later the interior was brightened by some wall paintings.The exterior is pictured right in the 1920s.

An 1863 Guide to the Church Services in London and its suburbs lists the pattern of worship (though it is probably incomplete) as:
Sundays 11am & 6.30pm; weekdays (except Saturday) and holy days 11am, plus Wednesdays at 1pm; HC first Sunday and greater festivals

Other institutions within the parish

For a few years In the 1850s the Working Tailors' Association had a small co-operative factory in Tenter Street, one of a dozen such experiments copying the French self-governing workshops (les associations ouveriers) launched by Christian Socialists under the leadership of J.M. Ludlow and largely financed by Edward Vansittart Neale. (F.D. Maurice, on whom see below, was the titular head of the Society for Promoting Working Men's Associations but was curiously lukewarm about practical projects, perhaps fearing that they would become movements of protest rather than change.) Much has been written about this movement, and the reasons for the projects' failures.

By the end of the 19th century, there were various hostels and clubs in the parish, including

…AND ITS CLERGY

An intriguing mix of clergy served this church during its near-century of existence, some drawn by commitment to the urban poor, some to the possibilities of mission among those of other faiths, particularly the Jews who came to make up the majority of its population, several distinguished scholars and national figures, and a few who hit the headlines in other ways. After an initial 'protestant phase', most of them were broad church and liberal, though there were a few high-church ritualists. Here are details of the incumbents ('Perpetual Curates' until 1863, then Vicars); see here for the many curates.

Incumbents

The first incumbent, from 1839, was Neville Jones (formerly of the Episcopal Floating Church), of St Catharine's College Cambridge, ordained by the Bishop of Lincoln in 1832. In his time the parish received a grant from the 'Metropolitan Society', whose full name was 'The Association for Promoting the Relief of Destitution in the Metropolis, and for Improving the Condition of the Poor, by means of Parochial and District Visiting, under the superintendence of the Bishop and Clergy, through the agency of Unpaid Visitors [later adding and without reference to religious persuasion]'. It was founded in 1845 and was one of a network of agencies which believed that charitable relief must be accompanied by a systematic programme of district visiting to address the social and moral causes of poverty. (It was also active at Trinity Episcopal Chapel.) Neville Jones wrote to them:

We held a meeting of influential inhabitants yesterday, and formed a committee of ten gentlemen, with hope of adding to their number. Sixteen other persons volunteered to act as visitors, and I doubt not, in a little while, considerably to increase the number, as we all were encouraged by your kind promise of pecuniary aid to relieve the vast amount of distress which naturally prevails in such localities as mine; and I now find that a want of means to relieve the misery to be encountered was the circumstance which kept many of my people from the work of district visiting, That objection will now be obviated by the assistance of your society.

In 1847 he swapped posts with John Lyons at St George Bolton (a curious iron-framed church). This pleased neither the congregation at Bolton nor Mr Jones - he had been assured that the benefice was worth over £330 a year, but he could only manage to scrape together £97. He wrote I am sorry to find, I have been so sadly misinformed by Mr. Lyons in this matter....all the affairs of St George's seem to be in a sad state of Confusion. Nevertheless, he remained there for 44 years, retiring after 58 years in ministry (when he was presented with a portrait and a purse of gold), having seen his populous parish divided by the creation of St James Little Bolton in 1862, and St Matthew Bolton in 1874 when he 'lost' 8,000 of his 20,000 parishioners. (St George's has long been redundant - for a time it was a craft centre - and the central Bolton parishes are now grouped together.) In 1859 he aroused the wrath of the legal profession by announcing, in the Bolton Chronicle, that despite the creation of the new Court of Probate he was still entitled to grant probate and letters of administration without recourse to solicitors!


John Lyons (1847-52), was born in Ireland in 1804 and ordained there. Briefly minister of Long Acre Chapel in London (where he was active in the Irish Society of London) and from 1833-38 of All Saints Chapel, Grosvenor Street in Liverpool (created from a former tennis court in 1798, licensed by the Bishop of Chester in 1832 - and sold to the Roman Catholics in 1845), he was involved in various Protestant associations, and debates with Roman Catholics, including this marathon six day session, harmoniously conducted, on 'The Rule of Faith' and 'The Sacrifice of the Mass' at Downside College, Bath in 1834 [title page right]. After his time in Bolton, and his exchange with Neville Jones, he became vicar of Tillingham in Essex (eliciting a pious ode on his departure - right - published in John Osborne A Poetic Miscellany 1866), then in 1859 of St Bartholomew Wednesbury, where there is a memorial marking his death in 1883.

A 'Rev J. Lyons' wrote this poem [left]  in The Ladies' Repository of 1849; if it was not him, it's worth including anyway as a pious response to new technology! [Compare the famous example of bathos by the Poet Laureate Alfred Austin, fifty years later on the illness of the Prince of Wales: Across the wires the electric message came: 'He is no better. He is much the same.']

Sunday services in 1851 were listed as at 11am and 6.30pm, and Wednesdays at 7pm, with the Lord's Supper on the first Sunday of the month:  Seats to be had at the School-house, Rosemary Lane, or after service, Wednesday evenings.


Then came John Llewellyn Davies (1852-56), born 1826, a Fellow of Trinity College Cambridge, who came to St Mark's after a year's unpaid curacy at St Anne Limehouse. He was a Broad Churchman and lifelong friend and disciple of F.D. Maurice (as were several of his successors), working with him on the establishment of the foundation of the Working Men's College in 1854. A frequent letter-writer to The Times and The Guardian  he corresponded with many leading liberal figures of the day - you can read some of their replies, edited by his son as A Victorian Postbag. This appeal [right] from The Evangelical Magazine vol 32 (154) shows his willingness to work ecumenically. (See here for his friend and unpaid curate Robert Hebert Quick.)

The first of his many scholarly publications was his joint translation with D.J. Vaughan [see below] of Plato's Republic (1852), followed by Saint Paul and Modern Thought, a response to Jowett's commentary (1856). In that year he became Rector of Christ Church Marylebone, remaining there until 1889. There were two collections of sermons -The Work of Christ, or the World reconciled to God, with a Preface on the Atonement Controversy (1860) and Sermons on the Manifestation of the Son of God, with a Preface addressed to Laymen on the present position of the Clergy of the Church of England, and an Appendix on the Testimony of Scripture and the Church as to the Possibility of Pardon in the Future State (1864). He wrote or co-wrote three of the Tracts for Priests and People, produced by a range of Broad Churchmen in the wake of Essays and Reviews (vol 1 1861, vol 2 1862). In 1866 came The Epistles of St. Paul to the Ephesians, the Colossians, and Philemon, with an Introduction and Notes, and an Essay on the Traces of Foreign Elements in the Theology of these Epistles; and in the same year The Poor Law and Charity,  a paper published in Macmillan's Magazine which foreshadows the approach to welfare that was to characterise the work of the Charity Organisation Society. Other works included Morality according to the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, Three Discourses on the Names Eucharist, Sacrifice, and Communion (1867), The Church of England and the Church of Rome (1870),Theology & Morality (1873), and The Gospel and Modern Life, Sermons on some of the Difficulties of the Day, with a Preface on a recent Phase of Deism (1875). 

Leaving London with a 700-name testimonial to his influence, he became Vicar of Kirkby Lonsdale from 1889-1908 (where in 1891 he produced Baptism, Confirmation, and the Lord's Supper, as interpreted by their outward Signs, three Expository Addresses for Parochial use), retiring to Hampstead at the age of 82. He was a Chaplain to the Queen (and then the King) from 1876. An original member of the Alpine Club, he was one of the first to climb some of the Swiss peaks.  He was a strong advocate of women's rights, and his sister Emily was one of the founders of Girton College. He had one daughter and six sons; his son Arthur's five boys were the inspiration of J.M. Barrie's Peter Pan He died in 1916, aged 90; here is his obituary in The Times.


David James Vaughan (1856-60) was Davies' exact contemporary (and joint Bell's Scholar) at Trinity, and in 1852 they produced together a translation with scholarly notes of Plato's Republic, the most widely-used version until eclipsed by that of Benjam Jowett, and still well-regarded. Influenced by Maurice, Ludlow and Campbell (who dedicated his Evidences to Vaughan) he had moved from Tractarianism to a liberal, broad church position which embraced the emerging Christian Socialism. He joined the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufacture and Commerce in 1853. At Rugby School and Cambridge he had become 'surrogate brother' to T.H. Green, the philosopher of social justice. After his time at St Mark's, he became the third of his High Tory father Edward Thomas Vaughan's (1777-1829) six sons - there were also eight daughters - to succeed him as vicar of St Martin Leicester (now the Cathedral), following Charles John (1841-44) and Edward Thomas Jnr (1845-59). He spent the whole of his ministry there - turning down the living of Battersea although it was worth £1200 a year, as against his Leicester stipend of £140. The Vaughan porch to the cathedral's south door (designed by J.L. Pearson) was a memorial to the brothers and their father, and especially to David's adult education work.

In The Health of Towns (1882) he advocated vaccination, better housing and fewer premature marriages. He was an assiduous visitor at the Infectious Diseases Hospital, despite the personal risks. In The Church and Socialism (1889) he raised the issue of poor employment prospects for men over 40: when brain and strength are at their best a man is liable to be regarded as past work. In 1894 he supported an international move to limit conscription to a single year, in the cause of peace. But he opposed non-sectarian teaching in Board Schools, as weakening morality. He is most remembered for founding - after Maurice's example - the Leicester Working Man's College, now Vaughan College (Leicester University's Adult Education Centre). He died in 1905.

[His brother Charles John Vaughan, also a product of Thomas Arnold's Rugby School, was appointed Headmaster of Harrow in 1845 where he sought to achieve a similar programme of public school reform, and pointed several hundred young men (his 'doves') towards ordination - eighteen of them became bishops, and two archbishops. Highly regarded as a preacher, and by such as Benson, Davidson, Westcott and Jowett, he left Harrow after firteen years (as he claimed had always been his plan), returning to Leicester before becoming Vicar of Doncaster, and then (in plurality) Master of the Temple and Dean of Llandaff, and also Deputy Clerk of the Closet to maintain his connections with Queen Victoria. Why  he did not himself become a bishop remains a matter of some pseculation. In 1964 Phyllis Grosskurth claimed it was because of a well-concealed sexual scandal: misconduct with a pupil, Alfred Pretor, who revealed this in a letter to fellow-pupil John Addington Symonds. Symonds, though by then part of the Oxford homosexual 'network' (he later married and had children. but remained a writer and commentator on 'male love', as well as an enthusiast for Italian travel - see here for a tribute after his death by the local county court judge A.R. Cluer) was encouraged to tell his father, who is it said prevented Vaughan's appointment as Bishop of Rochester. (Pretor never spoke to Symonds again.) But Canon Trevor Park, who has published Vaughan's 300 surviving letters (out of an estimated total of 300,000 - the rest were burnt at his request) claims, in Nolo Episcopari: A Life of C.J. Vaughan (St Bega Press 2014) that, although there were certainly 'romantic friendships' with pupils past and present (Vaughan was married, but childless), there is no clear evidence of misconduct, and that he declined episcopal offers because of his understanding of vocation rather than because of the threat of exposure.]

Robert Edward Bartlett (1860-66 - Vicar from 1863) was a student at Rugby under Dr Arnold, and at Balliol, then Trinity College Oxford where he became Fellow and Tutor prior to his appointment here. (He had been President of the Oxford Union, and years later commented on a debate in which W.E. Gladstone, future Prime Minister, had spoken for a particular motion but then voted against it.) The family home was at Rainsford Lodge, in the centre of Chelmsford; while still a student, he was involved in the development of the Chelmer & Blackwall Navigation Company [see this 1852 deed, left]. Throughout his life he corresponded with leading figures of the liberal world - among them E.A. Freeman, a Trinity contemporary who became Regius Professor of Modern History - see examples here. Three children were born at the parsonage in Goodman's Fields - William, who became a priest, Frank who became a civil servant in Ceylon, and Grace (one of the first women to study at Oxford). See here for the evidence he gave in 1862 to the Select Committee on the Ecclesiastical Commission, on the funding of poor parishes.

He then became Vicar of Pershore, in Worcester diocese. See here for the text of the paper he gave at a Social Science Congress in 1869, arguing for non-denominational, undogmatic religious education in schools. The choice, he said, was between ignoring religion and ignoring religious difficulties. A really good secular system would be better than none at all, and it would at, least remove the great obstacle to all improvement - dense stupidity. In 1873 he became Vicar of Great Waltham, north of Chelmsford but then in Rochester diocese, where be became a council member of the Essex Field Club (incidentally, along with the Revd W.S. Lach-Szyrma from Barkingside, who had led a mission at Christ Church Watney Street).

Bartlett was the Bampton Lecturer in 1888: his eight philosophical lectures on St Paul were published as The Letter and the Spirit [right]. In 1893 he was one of ten contributors to a series of lecture-sermons Christus Imperator, on the 'Universal Empire of  Christianity', edited by Charles Stubbs, Dean-designate of Ely (Macmillan 1984), his topic being 'Christ in the Realm of Philosophy'. (Fellow-contributors included Llewelyn Davies [above] on 'Christ in the Realm of Ethics', Brooke Lambert [below] on 'Christ in the Realm of Science', Samuel Barnett - by then Warden of Toynbee Hall - on 'Christ in the Realm of Sociology' and Canon Rawnsley, founder of the National Trust, on 'Christ in the Realm of Art'.) There were other publications, including an article on 'The Limits of Ritual in the Church of England' (Contemporary Review 1890), and chapters on 'The Holy Catholic Church' in ed. Henry Wace and F.W. Farrar Church and Faith (Blackwood 1899) and on 'The Relations of the Church of England with Modern Nonconformity' from the 1899 Christian Conference of the Church Congress (A & C Black 1900) - a body established in 1881 which included fellow-liberals such as Brooke Lambert and Harry Jones.

He
died aged 75 of 'cardiac exhaustion' in 1904 at Rainsford Lodge, which was sold in 1918 (and later became the site of Essex County Council staff car park until it was redeveloped for housing). Grace became a leading light of the Chelmsford Girls' Aid Society, to help young women and girls who are unsteady or in dangerous surroundings - a shelter was named Bartletts in her memory. She was also one of the first probation officers appointed when the Probation of Offenders Act 1907 created this new profession.


Brooke Lambert [right], from a titled, originally Huguenot, family, came from Brasenose College as Bartlett’s curate and then became Vicar (1866-71). Along with Samuel Barnett at St Jude Whitechapel, he was described as one of the 'squires of the slums'. (See Nigel Scotland Squires in the Slums (I.B. Tauris 2007) which traces the impact of Lambert, Barnett and others through to the establishment of university settlements and missions in the latter years of the century.) Influenced by F.D. Maurice, he was heavily involved in social action, serving on many committees and researching poor law administration, producing statistics that anticipate the work of Charles Booth. Seven Sermons on Pauperism, preached at St Mark's in 1870, were published. He founded a soup kitchen, a mutual improvement society and a working men's club, and campaigned for a public mortuary in the area, in the light of cases such as that reported in The Lancet (30 October 1860) of a child who had died of scarlet fever lying for seven days in a single underground room where his parents and three other children lived and slept, in a house in Tenter Street shared by several families. He became a member of the Guild of St Matthew, and one of his lectures on their behalf was 'The Republic of Plato and the Republic of Christ'. 

He was also an ardent vegetarian, writing about the local slaughterhouses:

If any one wishes to know whether the nuisance be real, let him turn out of the Whitechapel Road at the entrance to the London and North-Western goods station, and pass down the streets leading thence to Mansell Street. He will then know what the smell of blood is. And yet he will probably often boldly encounter the smell of blood in preference to the worse sights he will risk in Whitechapel Road. The carts laden with fresh skins, the pails full of blood and brains, are sights to which a long experience does not harden one.
Anna Bonus Kingsford The Perfect Way in Diet, chapter 8a Vegetarian Society publication that went through several editions.

He left because of poor health; after a year in Rainhill, Lancashire in 1872 he became Vicar of Tamworth, and then from 1880 until his death in 1901 Vicar of Greenwich, where he worked with schools, founded the Greenwich Provident Dispensary, and chaired the Metropolitan Association for Befriending Young Servants. He published widely, and his papers were bought by the University of Iowa libraries.

In 1866 the curate W.R. Scott established a mission chapel, named St Clement, at 69 Backchurch Lane. It is shown on this 1868 map, but was short-lived; more detail here.



George Davenport was Lambert's successor as Vicar (1871-99), and also Lecturer at St George-in-the-East from 1871-75, and he continued these social projects: the Charles Booth archives contain an interview (B222, pages 78-89). He trained at Queen's College Birmingham (founded in 1828) and served a brief curacy at Tamworth (see previous paragraph) in 1857, followed by five others in various parts of the country, the last at St Mary Whitechapel. He was also 'some time' domestic chaplain to the Marquis of Lansdowne. His brother-in-law, George Frederick Carlson, was a missionary in Zululand for 35 years. In his latter years curates conducted most of the occasional offices.


Work among the Jews, and beyond

As the parish population became overwhelmingly Jewish, St Mark's attempted for a time to offer a Christian witness to the diverse diaspora which had settled here (many living in extreme poverty, but with a rich cultural life). Four clergy who were Jewish converts* served here - as did two others at Christ Church Watney Street, and one at St John the Evangelist Grove Street; their stories are told in more detail here.

* Hermann Hirsch was curate from 1868-70, and Alexander William Schapira from 1887-90 (and later at Christ Church). A decade later, Albert Elias Abrahamson was curate (1896-1900), and Secretary of the Hebrew Christian Message to Israel.

Michael Rosenthal was Vicar from 1899-1907 (curiously, he only became a trustee of the parish's National School in 1904 - incumbents are normally ex officio). He was given a dispensation to preach in Hebrew. In 1885 Charlotte M. Yonge, sometimes described as 'the novelist of the Oxford movement', wrote to her cousin Mary about a meeting with Rosenthal at which he explained Jewish customs to her. The Booth Archive contains an interview with him [B222 pages 108-125].  His memorial tablet (in dark marble), which was moved to St Paul Dock Street when St Mark's closed, says formerly a Jewish rabbi, he was converted in early manhood to the Christian religion, and enduring much persecution thenceforth laboured unceasingly to bring to his Jewish brethren the knowledge of Jesus Christ.  More on his later ministry here. (His son David became the vicar of St Agatha Sparkbrook, an inner-city anglo-catholic parish in Birmingham, until his sudden death in 1938. Descendants remain active in the Church in Wales, and we are grateful for information that they have provided.)


But this focus petered out. Rosenthal's successor from 1907-21 was Lionel Smithett Lewis. Ordained in 1891 from Queens' College Cambridge, he had been a curate in Cheltenham, Pimlico, Clifton (Bristol) and Mile End New Town before coming here. He was a keen member of the Church Anti-Vivisection League (founded in 1889), whose first annual report stated the torture of God's sentient creatures is a sin. This was one of many of societies campaigning against animal experimentation; others were the Society for United Prayer against Cruelty, the British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection, the Electoral Anti-Vivisection League, the London Anti-Vivisection Society, the National Anti-Vivisection Society, the Society for the Abolition of Vivisection, the Victoria Street Society, and the Working Men's Association for the Suppression of Vivisection. (See Wilkie Collins' anti-vivisectionist novel Heart & Science 1883.) A crabby comment in the British Medical Journal of 14 July 1906 says of his sermon at the League's annual service at Christ Church Endell Street:

....The general dreariness and banality... seems to have been only relieved by his concluding statement of a belief that animals not less than man are included in the scope of the Redemption. It is a doctrine which may be commended to the study of theologists; when they have settled it, possibly those who share Mr. Lewis's prejudices might observe with some advantage the general scheme of Nature, note the general preying of animal upon animal, of insect upon insect, and ask themselves whether, apart from physical suffering, the standpoint of nearly all Christian sects is not that we are all here in pursuance of a vast experiment, being sent into the world with free wills, and inoculated at birth with the toxins of good and evil. Unfortunately, however, there are no controls, and the result can never be known to any of us in mundane life.

Vivisection became a local issue in Lewis' time with demonstrations in 1909 at the London Hospital against animal experimentation undertaken to improve the practice of anaesthesia; other less progressive hospitals in poor areas, such as Battersea and the Old Kent Road, were established which opposed both vivisection and vaccination. At the 1908 AGM of the Metropolitan Hospital Sunday Fund (which had raised £80,000 that year, half of it from churches) Lewis protested, unsuccessfully, at the exclusion of the Battersea Anti-Vivisection Hospital from the list of recipients. The hospital collection at St Mark's that year had raised 3s 3d (British Medical Journal 26 December 1908).

However, Lewis' major passion of his 86 years was the Holy Grail. When he left Whitechapel he became Vicar of Glastonbury, and wrote St Joseph of Arimathea at Glastonbury: or the Apostolic Church of Britain (first published in 1922, and much-reprinted - described as queer but carefully-documented); Glastonbury, the Mother of Saints: Her Saints AD 37 - AD 1539and many other books and pamphlets, based on his belief that the Grail legend had a factual basis. He died there in 1953, having devoted much of his energies to the annual pilgrimage (from which, sadly, women priests remain excluded). He also acquired for the parish, after an impassioned plea at its auction, one of two medieval priests' chairs (the other, at the Bishop's Palace in Wells, is pictured right): the pattern of the so-called Glastonbury chair has been widely copied by church furnishers over the last century.

See here for some comments on the baptism registers from this period: Rosenthal (in relation to Jewish converts) and Lewis (including an exchange across the years on the subject of 'private baptism').

FINAL DAYS


In the early part of the 20th century, extreme deprivation and poverty continued, and the church struggled to survive. The congregation continued to dwindle, and missionary work among the Jews came to nothing. After the First World War the decision was made to close the church. The school, however, despite various difficulties, and a petition for closure in 1921, remained open until the Second World War.

Ernest James Crosby became
Curate-in-charge from 1922-26 (when the church closed), and Curate of the united parish (with St Paul Dock Street) from 1926-28 - no doubt a depressing 'closure' ministry. He had previously served in Norfolk, Kent and Cornwall and as a chaplain in the First World War. He went on to become Rector of Prieska in the northern Cape Province - then a remote farming area (its name means 'place of the lost goat') at a ford crossing the Orange River, which had featured in the Boer War - the fort, decorated with locally-mined semi-precious stones including tiger's-eye, survives [pictured]. More recently copper, zinc and asbestos were mined there.

An Order in Council of 30 April 1926 united the parish to St Paul Dock Street, and the building was eventually demolished in 1937. Later the site was sold for £6,000 and the money given to help the building of St Francis, Dollis Hill. The bell, pulpit and two fonts were given to St Alphege, Hendon, and the wall paintings to Wragby Church in Lincolnshire. A warehouse, by Moore-Smith and Colbeck, incorporating the former parsonage as offices, was built on the site; it is now flats.

A memorial to 29 men from St Mark's parish who were killed in the First World War - a ceramic crucifixion, with wooden shutters listing the names - was transferred to St George-in-the-East (via St Paul Dock Street) but was stolen a few years later in 1991; it has not been recovered [better picture needed].

See here for statistics of baptisms and weddings during the lifetime of the parish.


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Goodman's Fields (2)   Prescot Street ~ Leman Street ~ Rupert & Lambeth Streets ~ Chamber Street
for background to the whole area see Goodman's Fields (1); for Mansell Street see Goodman's Fields (3); see also Magdalen Hospital.

Prescot Street (originally Great Prescot(t) Street)
runs between Mansell Street to the west to Leman Street to the east. It is named for Rebecca Prescott, wife of William Leman.

The north side of Prescot Street was the site of an archaeological evaluation in 2006 and a dig in 2008, prior to the building of a hotel [left, towards South Tenter Street] - see here for details, including video diaries and material about the significance of the site. It formed part of what is known as the East London Roman cemetery. In 1678 numerous Roman funeral urns and lachrymatories, with bars and silver money had been found here. It may have been linked with the sixth legion of the Roman army, for in 1787 a stone 15" x 12" x3" was found with the inscription [right]:
Ditches, three burials and a range of pits were uncovered, together with some glass (described in vol.12 of the London Archaeologist). Several 15th century pits were recorded, including a rubbish pit 10m across with leather and other organic remains, inlucing 'poulaine' shoes and leatherworking waste. Later remains dated from the 18th century housing development.
D M
FL AGICoLA. MIL.
LEG. VI. VICT. V. AN.
XLII. VI. D. X. ALBIA.
FAUSTINA. CoNIVGi
INCoNPARABILI
F C

As it was developed for good-quality housing, it became one of the earliest London streets to have numbered buildings, rather than signs (from 1708) - perhaps copying the practice of the staircases of the Inns of Court. An early resident, before he moved to Soho Square, was the 'rough old admiral' Sir Cloudesley Shovel. The current Pevsner characterises the street today [left, looking west] as ragged with insignificant commercial permises and flashy offices muscling in on older fabric. As noted below, a number of buildings (including some since demolished) were listed at Grade 2 in 1973. Also left are two distinctive bollards from the street (see here for a comprehensive website on London street bollards); right are Victorian watercolours of the front and rear of no.43.

From around 1870-90 there was a synagogue in the street, and from 1857-80 the Jewish Widows' Home Asylum was at no.67 before moving to Hackney. In the early 20th century the Association for the Protection of Women and Girls ran a refuge for young girls arriving in London and at risk from pimps and procurers. See above and here for more details of Jewish welfare agencies in the area.  Bonn's Kosher Hotel was at no.12 - left is a lavish wedding menu of 1892. Bonn's Matzos was taken over by Rakusens in the 1970s (more details here). Right  is Prescot Street in 1935, looking eastwards.

South side today
Nos.1 & 9 were developed in Art Deco [Pevnser specifies 'Amsterdam School'] style in the 1930-33 by L.G. Ekins, architect of the Co-operative Wholesale Society [on which see below], and used by the Co-op Bank; they are Grade 2 listed buildings. J.C. Blair's carving over the doorway of no.1 symbolises CWS principles - two individuals shaking hands beneath a hive of bees where the bees gain benefits from mutual co-operation [see below on the wheatsheaf, another Co-op symbol]. Formerly offices, in 1999 no.1 was converted into 150 luxury flats (winning awards). In July 2008 some corporate directorates of Barts and the London moved into no.9 (103,500 sq ft) - bringing them full circle. Other CWS headquarters in Leman Street are described below.

No.15 [right] is the neat and narrow [Pevsner] Princess of Prussia public house, built around 1880. Princess Anna Amalia (1723-87) was a gifted musician, whose sister married the Crown Prince of Sweden.

Next door, at no.16, was Whitechapel County Court, a 4-storey Italianate building, modelled on a  Florentine or Pisan town house or small palace, with arched windows, detached columns and a heavy dentil cornice, designed in 1857-8 by Charles Reeves & Lewis G. Butcher (showing an early Ruskin influence): Reeves was the surveyor of county courts, and some of his drawings are at the National Archives. It combines features of 19th century police stations with those of commercial and industrial Victorian buildings; it was listed in 1973. (See here for the history of magistrates' courts in the area.) After the court moved, it was used as government offices, and is now the acclaimed Café Spice Namasté with a noted Parsi chef from Goa, Cyrus Todiwala OBE, who makes regular tv appearances. [Building left in 1938 and today, plus interior].

No.21 (and adjacent properties) was the site of the 24-bed London Infirmary for sick and diseased manufacturers, seamen in the merchant service and their wives and families from 1741. The house was rented from Sir William Leman at 24 guineas a year; it expanded to five houses, and included a mortuary, a herb garret (for drying and storing medicinal herbs) and a cold bath (since its first physician was a devotee of therapeutic bathing). In 1757 it moved to its present site at Mount Field, Whitechapel Road as the London Hospital. (The excellent Barts and The London website provides much more detail about this and other hospital sites, and there is an fascinating museum at the former St Philip's Church, Newark Street behind the main hospital buildings.) The Prescot Street site was then let in 1758 to the Magdalen Hospital on a 7-year lease. (Magdalen Passage, running through its former site - right - is a reminder.)

When this in turn moved, the premises were used for various purposes, eventually becoming the offices of the National Cigar & Tobacco Workers Union - reflecting a local trade: see, for example, here and here. The Friendly Society of Operative Tobacconists was established as a craft union in 1834, becoming the United Tobacconists' Society in 1836 and the United Kingdom Operative Tobacconists' Society in 1881; membership was widened in 1925, as a result of a 1918 conference, to include all tobacco workers - including women, who by World War II formed the majority of membership; it disaffilated from the TUC in 1926 over poaching allegations, but rejoined in 1941. In 1946 it merged with the National Cigar and Tobacco Workers' Union, and in 1986 became part of TASS - the Technical, Administrative and Supervisory Section - and two years later of MSF - the Management, Science & Finance Union.

Damaged in the Blitz, the buildings stood derelict until the 1970s, when they were demolished to make way for the present structure, built in 1988 with 50,000 ft² of office space on six floors for Abbey National Bank, later Santander - it became a call centre for 600 staff. Their lease expired on 24 December 2012, and the freehold was acquired by the Royal College of Psychiatrists which, having outgrown 17 Belgrave Square in the West End and already running some of its activities in East London (including Standon House, 21 Mansell Street), needed premises to bring all its work together on one site. They moved onto the site in the autumn of 2013 - details here - and we welcome them and wish them well in their new home!

The houses at nos. 23, 24, 25 and 30 were listed Grade II in 1973. No.23, a 4-storey plus basement yellow brick house with a handsome doorcase, railings and steps, is the only survivor of the 1770s redevelopment of the Leman estate; no.30 is from the early 19th century (staircase left).

No.24 was a Victorian Tudor house, and had been the Convent of Mary Immaculate (shown in 1969, next to no.23); no.25, with rounded doorframe, was next door (stairwell right).  Both were demolished, and replaced by a block built as Juno Court, 24-26 (far right - brashly unpleasant, says Pevsner), which is now London City Premier Inn.The sisters remain active in the area.

English Martyrs Roman Catholic Church was built in 1875 to designs by Pugin on the site of a former sawmill; it was listed in 1982.

North side today
No.46 is the 5-star Grange Tower Bridge Hotel [left].

No.66, on the corner of Leman Street, is Kingsfield House, with 113,000
ft² of office space on eight floors [right]; the current Pevsner describes it as gargantuan Postmodern offices in the Stirling vein with pink and beige striped cladding and a curved corner tower.


Little Prescot Street
was the continuation of Mansell Street, running from the western end of Great Prescot Street to Rosemary Lane/Royal Mint Street; its original name was Rosemary Branch Alley. From 1730 to 1855 it was the home of an old-established Baptist congregation, described in detail here.

Crime was rife, including against children. In 1755 Elizabeth Souther, a beggar, took a 7-year-old girl into a 'house of office' [outdoor privy] on Rosemary Branch Alley and stole her stays, which she pawned for one shilling. Souther professed she was stupefied in liquor and knew nothing of it. Rictor Norton in ch.10 of The Georgian Underworld quotes from The Triumph of Wit, a 'canting dictionary' whose classification of  beggars includes paillards or clapperdogeons who, from infancy, counterfeit lameness, making their legs, arms and hands appear to be sore, and very nauseous, with cream and blood, butter and soap, ointment and corrosives, and sometimes by putting on counterfeit lame legs, and false wither’d arms, making horrible wry faces, and setting off their story of being shot, burnt, scalded, perished with the evil, and the like, with a lamentable voice ... mumpers - genteel beggars, who begged alms from travellers at inns and street corners, or by knocking at doors; and baudy baskets, women who wandered the streets with a basket under their arm and a child, pretending to sell toys and trifles, and so beg or steal, as they see occasion, and find opportunity.

The National Archives hold wills from residents of the street - John Stockley in 1753, Solomon Solomon (or Solomons), fine drawer, in 1814, and John McLern or McLean, mariner, in 1837; and Sun Alliance records include the insurance of Timothy Adshead of 4 Rosemary Branch Alley, tailor & salesman. in 1813. There were Jewish residents -  for example, Betsy (Beilah) Isaacs, born 1790 - and also Germans: in 1796 James Riggs was acquitted at the Old Bailey of violent theft from Maria Dummert, whose husband was a journeyman farrier working with her German father in Little Prescot Street. He was accused of stealing her money box (which bore the inscription I love too well to kiss and tell) - at a cheesemonger's shop between her house in Gowers Walk and father's in Little Prescot Street. Seven good character references, including an elder of the India warehouses, were called.

Dodsley's Annual Register for 1803 recorded
March 10 - A terrible fire broke out in the night at a cooperage, in Rosemary-branch-alley, Rosemary-lane, which consumed the whole of the premises, and also Branch's cloaths exchange, consisting of about 12 houses, chiefly built of wood, and inhabited by piece-brokers. The fire raged with great furyfor more than one hours, through the want of water. Happily no lives were lost.

Piece brokers were dealers in cloth, especially remnants. The elegantly-inscribed registers of St Botolph Aldgate record children and young people (some from workhouses) for whom they arranged apprenticeships, including Mary Ann Evans, aged 14, placed in 1805 with Elizabeth Dishington, widow of 4 Rosemary Branch Alley, as a piece broker till 21 or day of Marriage, for a fee of £2 plus a further £2 2s at the Expiration of Six Weeks from the date of the Indenture.

Hillatt & Martin, printers at no.13, were publishers of broadside ballads in the first half of the 19th century, and some examples are shown here: nautical songs, such as The Arethusa, The Minute Gun at Sea, Then farewell, my trim-built wherry and Phoebe and her dark-eyed sailor; bawdy songs about Queen Victoria's coronation - The Maiden Queen and Rigs & Sprees of the Coronation (1837); tragi-comic ditties, some in 'Cockney dialect' replacing 'v' with 'w' and adding/subtracting the letter 'h', such as All round my hat (to the tune 'Poor little Fisherman's Boy'), Poll and my partner Joe, Pleasures of Matrimony, and the curious Sarah Gale's Lament (to the tune 'Death of Parker'), concerned with James Greenacre in the Murder of Hannah Brown (December 1856). In 1855 they distributed a skit (song plus text) on The New General Sunday Trading Bill, with Sir A. A....'s resolutions. (This bill, to restrict Sunday trading, was introduced by Lord Grosvenor, and occasioned riots in Hyde Park; 'Sir A.A' was Sir Andrew Agnew, a Sabbatarian with whom Charles Dickens crossed swords.)

Right is a drawing, c1880, by John Philipps Emslie, of 7, 6 and 5 Little Prescot Street, backing onto Royal Mint Street, showing that a few wooden houses remained, as well as grander properties.


lemanstreetLeman Street (formerly Red Lion Street) - see also 1921 Street Directory
'Leman' is an old term for a mistress or lover, which may be the reason why some local people pronounce it 'Lemon', and it is so spelt on some old maps, although as explained here the name comes from Sir John Leman. In 1831 the Garrick Theatre was built in the street - see here for details of earlier local theatres - which was demolished in 1891, and the police station (previously a few doors away) was rebuilt on the site. Right is a 'fireproof' sugar refinery of 1850 - see here for the background to this. The continued German presence in the vicinity - with churches in Alie Street and Hooper Square - is shown by the two early 20th century postcards, the first of a 'Christian Home for German Artisans' at 88-90 (later a German YMCA), the second of a private hotel at 114. The mix of domestic and industrial premises continued apace, and is explored in more detail here (in relation to the 1921 street directory).

Up to 1892,13 Hooper Square, off Leman Street, was the base of a firm of bookbinders, Flude & Skelt, until 1878 a partnership between James William Flude, Joseph Birch and George Skelt in Great Prescot Street. The Skelt family, originally local shoemakers, were prominent in the printing of toy theatre sheets - left.


The Eastern Dispensary was set up in Great Alie Street in 1782 by a group of doctors (including the Quaker physician and anti-slavery campaigner Thomas Knowles, who died in 1786 from a fever caught from a patient), with the Duke of Wellington as President. It moved to new premises in Leman Street [now 19A] in 1858 [right]. It closed in 1940 because of wartime difficulties, and in 1944 the building was leased to the Jewish Hospital Committee; the Charity Commission refused transfer to the London Hospital, so assets were transferred to the Marie Celeste Samaritan Society in 1952. Since 1998 the building has been a pub and dining room. A 1787 booklet about the Dispensary sold a few years ago for £1350!

There are several listed buildings in the street. Left are five images of no.66, a brown brick 4-storey house of about 1760, with attic added later, at various periods of its existence:
[1] & [2] exterior and interior in 1910, when it was Manor House Working Men's Home (it may have served a similar function for some years previously: in 1888 John Wood, of this address, a chemist and widower, died at Whitechapel workhouse of contusions);
[3]
in dereliction in 1964 - it was listed Grade 2 in 1973, forming a group with nos.60-70 (noting its wood doorcase with plain Ionic columns, pulvinated frieze and bracketed cornice with pediment, semi-circular fanlight, archivolt with key and moulded impost blocks);
[4]
today (with attic removed), now the premises of New Holbud Ship Management Ltd; and
[5] its doorway.

Two other Grade 2 listed buildings [right] are no.137 with a late 18th/early 19th century façade [at one time the manager's office of the London,Tilbury & Southend Railway's nearby goods depot, and now the Red Chilli curry club], and no.141 with vestiges of an early 18th century façade [which was a mosque for a time, and is now an Indian restaurant]; the Brown Bear was in between at no.139.

In 1887 the Co-operative Wholesale Society opened the grand headquarters of its London operations on the corner of Leman Street and Hooper Street [three views left], a seven-storey structure in brick, granite and Portland stone incorporating a suga
r warehouse and a prominent clock tower, designed by J.F. Goodey of Colchester, a CWS committee member about whom little is known. Right is the CWS wheatsheaf logo, Labor and wait, carved on the building. The wheatsheaf [like the bee, above] was a symbol of co-operation - one stalk cannot stand alone - and is found in various forms on Co-op buildings up and down the land; the American spelling 'labor' was deliberately used to show solidarity with those fighting slavery in America, drawing on the final words of the poem 'A Psalm of Life' by the American poet Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-82): Let us, then, be up and doing, / With a heart for any fate; / Still achieving, still pursuing, / Learn to labor and wait. (The words also provided the chorus of a contemporary temperance song.)

An earlier building on the site, including a tea warehouse and the delegates' meeting room, was seriously damaged by fire on 30 December 1885 (reported to the authorities by an unemployed man's wife, which earned her a sovereign). £28,000 was recovered in insurance, and quarterly meetings were held at Toynbee Hall, by permission of the Revd Samuel Barnett, until the new premises were constructed. More details about the building can be found in the 1913 Jubilee History of the CWS. A short 16mm CWS information film, shot in 1931, Rose of the Orient, shows the growing and picking of tea in Sri Lanka, the Leman Street warehouse, and how to make a perfect cuppa!  Now a Grade 2 listed building, known as the Sugar House, 99 Leman Street, it has been converted into luxury apartments.

The large red-brick complex on the corner of Leman and Alie Streets was developed in the 1970s as a computer, interbank cheque clearing and IT development centre for National Westminster Bank, with an extension added in the 1990s. The 'campus' also included buildings at 75 [first right] and 135 Leman Street (Eastgate House, second right), linked by
a bridge; for a time it had its own pub, The Long Bar (originally signed as 'Management Services Division'). NatWest was taken over by the Royal Bank of Scotland in 2000 and the computer mainframes went elsewhere.

Demolition and re-development of the site began in 2006 to create Berkeley Homes' City Quarter, and is ongoing: here are visualisations of the project. The painting of the demolition [above]  is © Joanna Moore, 'The Town Mouse'. The site is one of Tower Hamlet's strategic allocations - left is the draft development plan (under the Local Development Framework) - CAB 051/112. Right is Leman Street in the 1930s (looking south); in 1963, from the top by Aldgate East station; the junction of Leman and Cable Streets some years later; and, at the other end of the street, a Roman Catholic procession in the 1960s; see here for a link to a site with many other historical pictures of Roman Catholic events in the area.


Rupert & Lambeth Streets
lay to the east of Leman Street, both running from Hooper Square to Alie Street - right are Roque's map of 1746 and Weller's of 1868 before the construction of the goods yard between Lambeth Street and Backchurch Lane, resulting in the relocation of Gower's Walk Free School to Rupert Street. In the 18th century Rupert Street had housed a number of sugar refineries - see here for details. The Whitechapel 'public office' (police station and magistrates' court) was in Lambeth Street.

'Urinary deceptions'
The Medical & Physical Journal 1804 (Letter II, 'Of Quacks and Empiricism'), tells this curious tale of a one-time resident of Rupert Street:
Dr. Mayersbach, near Schweinfurth, in Germany ... came to London in November, 1773; and from his subsequent success, he must have possessed strong radical powers. Every other scheme that was suggested to his inventive mind having failed, he offered himself to Angelo, who then kept a riding school, but was not accepted, as his diminutive size rendered him unsuitable for an equestrian posture-master. About this period (1773) he became acquainted by an introductory letter from Mr. Bresener, his brother-in-law, with his countryman, Dr. Griffenberg, before his reputation was totally blasted by his voluptuous services to Lord Baltimore; and it was agreed between them, that Griffenberg should initiate Mayersbach into his urinary deceptions, for which a share of the profits should be given given to the tutor, and which the great success of that pupil was enabled amply to confer; but which was probably withdrawn when Mayersbach became himself a professed adept; at least, so I was informed by Griffenberg and his wife: part of the engagement, indeed, extended to the latter, provided she should survive her husband, which really happened. The agreement, so far as it respected the widow, is literally translated from the original:
Whereas Dr. J.T. Griffenberg has, with extraordinary kindness, shewn me the secrets of his profession, and thereby put me in a situation to earn my bread as a doctor, and to succeed in his practice, if I should survive him; I shall ever consider myself hound by duty aud gratitude to respect the said Dr. Griffenberg as my parent, and always most punctually to fulfil his will. I swear before Almighty God, by my soul and salvation, that if in the providence of the Most High, I should survive the said Dr. Griffenberg, that I will always respect his widow; and, as a testimony of my gratitude, give unto her during, her life, six shilliugs a week out of my earnings; in confirmation of which, I hereunto subscribe my name,
THEODOR VAN MAYERS OF MAYERBSBACH, London, November 1773

At the time that Dr Mayersbach first came under the tuition of Dr Griffenberg, he did not know one article of medicine, nor the treatment of one disease, when he published the following quack bill:
Doctor Van Mayersbach is arrived from Prague, and intends to remain here some time; he begs leave to recommend himself to the respectable public, to be honoured with their confidence, by which he will prove that he understands the use of medicine, and cures all inward and outward diseases. He tells every person, by his uncommon knowledge of urine, not only their diseases, but likewise how to cure them.

The two first patients he had were, one with the itch, and the other with a cough, and he was obliged to place them in another room, till he could receive a message from his master how to proceed. It would have hence been a remuneration which gratitude demanded, independently of written documents, to have relieved the widow; which, however, he absolutely refused, at a time when it was said that his income was at least five thousand pounds a year.

Let it however be recorded to Dr. Mayersbach's honour, that in 1773, when lie lived in Rupert-street, Goodman's Fields, his wife, after a tedious illness, which proved fatal, had been attended by Johan Toennius, apothecary in Mansell-street; and on application to Mayersbach in 1776, he faithfully discharged the expence of attendance which her illness had occasioned.
As Mayersbach was totally ignorant of medicines, certain pills, powders, and drops, with directions to give them, under certain circumstances, were sent to him; and these he administered discretionally. As he got a little more fledged, he attempted a loftier flight, and even ventured to handle edged tools;  but in consequence of their indiscriminate use, many serious effects succeeded, which were formally communicated to a board of the Royal College of Physicians, when it was archly observed by one of the board, that the charges merited investigation in the criminal courts of law; and thus the business ended with a laugh at the gentleman who presented these charges, for his ignorance in imagining that the College of Physicians ever did a wise act; or, in any instance, ever promoted medical science science.

Mayersbach's reputation continued for some months in the most elevated degree. As a water doctor in the metropolis must be supposed to know more than the water doctors in the country, the devotees to deception flocked to town, or sent up their vials by the stages, and the urinary traffic of the country was transferred to London; and thus the German impostor, who, a few months before could not cure the itch, monopolized the most lucrative professional business in Europe. Among his patients he could claim a Harrington, a Hawke, and even a Garrick ....

In 1777 the Monthly Review, or Literary Journal (vol 55) told Dr Toennius' side of the story - how Mayerbach was lodging with a shoemaker, pleading poverty, claiming to be seeking employment with a starch-maker, and declaring himself to be totally unacquainted with medicine - so he took no fee until he learnt of his reputation. The report - right - also claims that he treated animals, declaring in one case, after inspecting a cow's urine, that the party had been too free with the ladies of the town. Mayersbach
quit London after exposure, but returned within a year and was again successful; he died soon afterwards.

John's Court joined Rupert and Lambeth Streets, and a school maked Little Alie Street Secondary School' was show n here for a time. Christopher Court ran off Lambeth Street. There was  a public house, The Crown, at 14 Rupert Street (
renamed Goodman Street in the 20th century, prior to the 1970s redevelopment of the whole area into the National Westminster Bank's Goodman's Fields 'campus').


chamberstreetis south of Prescot Street, running alongside and underneath the railway from Leman Street to Goodman's Yard; it was included in Charles Booth's 1888 survey. Today at its western end is a Travelodge, and Barneys Seafood, the last remaining fish wholesaler with roots near Billingsgate Market, whose factory shop sells jellied eels and other traditional East End fare (lots of good recipes on their site). The former Swallows Gardens (a 'Ripper site') runs through their premises [right]. At the eastern end of the street is contemporary housing development - example far right. It is hoped that development proposals for the Royal Mint Street site will include community facilities in the railway arches and basements, accessed from Chamber Street.

On the corner of Leman and Chamber Streets were the Imperial Warehouses [left in 1970, with its contemporary replacement, an office block at no.120], base for various businesses over the years. In the latter years of the 19th century it housed the duty-paid stores of the United Kingdom Tea Company, whose head office was at 21 Mincing Lane. Their imaginative advertisements of the 1890s have been much-studied for their semiotic significance: they include Samuel Pepys (who wrote in 1660 I did send for a cup of Tea [a China drink]), Britannia, and [right] Dr Livingstone, and a ponytailed Mandarin, all drinking tea, showing it both as a patriotically English and an exotic activity. A teapot bearing the company logo, and a model railway wagon, are also shown. In 1889 a clerk, who had a key to the warehouse, was convicted of stealing 110lb. of tea over a 3-week period, to which he claimed he was entitled in lieu of unpaid wages. in 1898 William Dunham Ltd, operating from these premises, went bust. In the 20th century, British American Belts Ltd occupied 8-12 Imperial Warehouses; latterly described as plastic goods manufacturers, the company was dissolved in 1969. (The freehold of nos.2,4 and 6 was registered by D. and A. Marks, of 60 Leman Street, in 1952.)


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